Glucosamine is utilised in the production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) which then combine with hyaluronic acid (HA) to form large proteoglycans in the matrix of cartilage. As such, glucosamine is a fundamental molecule for the synthesis and structure of cartilage. A growing body of evidence supports the pain relieving and potentially chondroprotective properties of glucosamine. Notably, glucosamine prevents degradation of cartilage proteoglycans in vitro and upregulates production of proteoglycan by chondrocytes. Glucosamine has also been shown in vitro to protect against the inhibition of proteoglycan production in chondrocytes caused by methylprednisolone.
Oral administration of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate has demonstrated positive effects on equine osteoarthritis and intravenous administration of glucosamine more rapidly produces significantly higher serum and synovial fluid glucosamine levels.
During one 12-hour study period, intravenous administration in horses created maximum glucosamine levels 50x higher in the serum and over 20x higher in the synovial (joint) fluid than oral administration of glucosamine HCl. In Australian trials of NV Glucosamine 200 Injection, veterinarians reported “Good” to “Very Good” response in 67.5% of the osteoarthritic horses treated (20mL IV daily for 5 – 10 days in most cases). Positive responses included improved action and race performance, and reduced lameness and joint effusion.
Pentosan polysulfate, as contained in Ceva’s Pentosan Equine Injection, is known to stimulate cartilage healing, a process which utilises glucosamine for production of GAGs and HA. Combining glucosamine
injections prior to and/or at the time of Pentosan Equine administration may enhance the beneficial effects on the joints.
Adult Horses (500 kg): Administer 20 mL daily by intravenous injection
for 5 – 10 days, or as directed by a veterinary surgeon.
In light of the actions of glucosamine discussed above, consideration
may also be given to :
– Protective pre-treatment with Glucosamine 200 Injection prior to
intra-articular corticosteroid injections;
– Combination with daily oral glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate products
such as Ceva’s Cosequin® Equine Powder Concentrate or Joint Guard
Powder for Horses;
– Adjunctive pre- or concurrent treatment with Glucosamine 200 and
Pentosan Equine injections.